Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court

The Supreme Court has original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction. Its exclusive original jurisdiction extends to any dispute between the Government of India and one or more States or between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more States on the other or between two or more States, if and insofar as the dispute involves any question (whether of law or of fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends. In addition, Article 32 of the Constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court in regard to enforcement of Fundamental Rights. It is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari to enforce them. The Supreme Court has been conferred with power to direct transfer of any civil or criminal case from one State High Court to another State High Court or from a Court subordinate to another State High Court. The Supreme Court, if satisfied that cases involving the same or substantially the same questions of law are pending before it and one or more High Courts or before two or more High Courts and that such questions are substantial questions of general importance, may withdraw a case or cases pending before the High Court or High Courts and dispose of all such cases itself. Under the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, International Commercial Arbitration can also be initiated in the Supreme Court.

The appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court can be invoked by a certificate granted by the High Court concerned under Article 132(1), 133(1) or 134 of the Constitution in respect of any judgement, decree or final order of a High Court in both civil and criminal cases, involving substantial questions of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution. Appeals also lie to the Supreme Court in civil matters if the High Court concerned certifies : (a) that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance, and (b) that, in the opinion of the High Court, the said question needs to be decided by the Supreme Court. In criminal cases, an appeal lies to the Supreme Court if the High Court (a) has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death or to imprisonment for life or for a period of not less than 10 years, or (b) has withdrawn for trial before itself any case from any Court subordinate to its authority and has in such trial convicted the accused and sentenced him to death or to imprisonment for life or for a period of not less than 10 years, or (c) certified that the case is a fit one for appeal to the Supreme Court. Parliament is authorised to confer on the Supreme Court any further powers to entertain and hear appeals from any judgement, final order or sentence in a criminal proceeding of a High Court.

The Supreme Court has also a very wide appellate jurisdiction over all Courts and Tribunals in India in as much as it may, in its discretion, grant special leave to appeal under Article 136 of the Constitution from any judgment, decree, determination, sentence or order in any cause or matter passed or made by any Court or Tribunal in the territory of India.

The Supreme Court has special advisory jurisdiction in matters which may specifically be referred to it by the President of India under Article 143 of the Constitution. There are provisions for reference or appeal to this Court under Article 317(1) of the Constitution, Section 257 of the Income Tax Act, 1961,Section 130-A of the Customs Act, 1962, and Section 82C of the Gold (Control) Act, 1968. Appeals also lie to the Supreme Court under the Representation of the People Act, 1951, Advocates Act, 1961, The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, Income Tax Act, 1961, Customs Act, 1962, Central Excises Act, 1944, Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, The Supreme Court (Enlargement of Criminal Appellate Jurisdiction) Act, 1970, The Special Court (Trial of Offences Relating to Transactions in Securities) Act, 1992, Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, Competition Act, 2002, Electricity Act, 2003, National Tax Tribunal Act, 2005, Armed Forces Tribunal Act, 2007, Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006, Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India Act, 2008, National Green Tribunal Act, 2010, Companies Act, 2013, Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 2013, Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets) and Imposition of Tax Act, 2015, Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016, Central Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017, Major Port Authorities Act, 2021, and Consumer Protection Act, 2019.Election Petitions under Part III of the Presidential and Vice Presidential Elections Act, 1952 are also filed directly in the Supreme Court.

Under Articles 129 and 142 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has been vested with power to punish for contempt of Court including the power to punish for contempt of itself. In case of contempt other than the contempt referred to in Rule 2, Part-I of the Rules to Regulate Proceedings for Contempt of the Supreme Court, 1975, the Court may take action (a) Suo motu, or (b) on a petition made by Attorney General, or Solicitor General, or (c) on a petition made by any person, and in the case of a criminal contempt with the consent in writing of the Attorney General or the Solicitor General.

Under Order XL of the Supreme Court Rules the Supreme Court may review its judgment or order but no application for review is to be entertained in a civil proceeding except on the grounds mentioned in Order XLVII, Rule 1 of the Code of Civil Procedure and in a criminal proceeding except on the ground of an error apparent on the face of the record.

Order XLVIII of the Supreme Court Rules, 2013 provides that the Supeme Court can reconsider its final judgment/ order by way of a Curative Petition on limited grounds after the dismissal of Review Petition.


Although the proceedings in the Supreme Court arise out of the judgments or orders made by the Subordinate Courts including the High Courts, but of late the Supreme Court has started entertaining matters in which interest of the public at large is involved and the Court can be moved by any individual or group of persons either by filing a Writ Petition at the Filing Counter of the Court or by addressing a letter to Hon'ble the Chief Justice of India highlighting the question of public importance for invoking this jurisdiction. Such concept is popularly known as 'Public Interest Litigation' and several matters of public importance have become landmark cases. This concept is unique to the Supreme Court of India only and perhaps no other Court in the world has been exercising this extraordinary jurisdiction. A Writ Petition filed at the Filing Counter is dealt with like any other Writ Petition and processed as such. In case of a letter  addressed to Hon'ble the Chief Justice of India the same is dealt with in accordance with the guidelines framed for the purpose.


If a person belongs to the poor section of the society having annual income of less than Rs. 5,00,000/- or belongs to Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe, a victim of natural calamity, is a woman or a child or a mentally ill or otherwise disabled person or an industrial workman, or is in custody including custody in protective home, he/she is entitled to get free legal aid from the Supreme Court Legal Aid Committee. The aid so granted by the Committee includes cost of preparation of the matter and all applications connected therewith, in addition to providing an Advocate for preparing and arguing the case. Any person desirous of availing legal service through the Committee has to make an application to the Secretary and hand over all necessary documents concerning his case to it. The Committee after ascertaining the eligibility of the person provides necessary legal aid to him/her.

Persons belonging to middle income group i.e. with income above Rs. 60,000/- but under Rs. 7,50,000/- per annum are eligible to get legal aid from the Supreme Court Middle Income Group Society, on nominal payments.


If a petition is received from the jail or in any other criminal matter if the accused is unrepresented then an Advocate is appointed as amicus curiae by the Court to defend and argue the case of the accused. In civil matters also the Court can appoint an Advocate as amicus curiae if it thinks it necessary in case of an unrepresented party; the Court can also appoint amicus curiae in any matter of general public importance or in which the interest of the public at large is involved.


The High Court stands at the head of a State's judicial administration. There are 25 High Courts in the country, three having jurisdiction over more than one State. Among the Union Territories Delhi,- and Union Territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh have a High Court of their own. Other five Union Territories come under the jurisdiction of different State High Courts. Each High Court comprises of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may, from time to time, appoint. The Chief Justice of a High Court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the State. The procedure for appointing puisne Judges is the same except that the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned is also consulted. They hold office until the age of 62 years and are removable in the same manner as a Judge of the Supreme Court. To be eligible for appointment as a Judge one must be a citizen of India and have held a judicial office in India for ten years or must have practised as an Advocate of a High Court or two or more such Courts in succession for a similar period.

Each High Court has power to issue to any person within its jurisdiction directions, orders, or writs including writs which are in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari for enforcement of Fundamental Rights and for any other purpose. This power may also be exercised by any High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to territories within which the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises for exercise of such power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or authority or residence of such person is not within those territories.

Each High Court has powers of superintendence over all Courts within its jurisdiction. It can call for returns from such Courts, make and issue general rules and prescribe forms to regulate their practice and proceedings and determine the manner and form in which book entries and accounts shall be kept. The following Table (*Annexure.A) gives the seat and territorial jurisdiction of the High Courts.


There is an Advocate General for each State, appointed by the Governor, who holds office during the pleasure of the Governor under Article 165 of the Constitution of India. He must be a person qualified to be appointed as a Judge of High Court. His duty is to give advice to State Governments upon such legal matters and to perform such other duties of legal character, as may be referred or assigned to him by the Governor. The Advocate General has the right to speak and take part in the proceedings of the State Legislature without the right to vote.


Lok Adalats which are voluntary agencies is monitored by the State Legal Aid and Advice Boards. They have proved to be a successful alternative forum for resolving of disputes through the conciliatory method.

The Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 provides statutory status to the legal aid movement and it also provides for setting up of Legal Services Authorities at the Central, State and District levels. These authorities will have their own funds. Further, Lok Adalats which are at present informal agencies will acquire statutory status. Every award of Lok Adalats shall be deemed to be a decree of a civil court or order of a Tribunal and shall be final and binding on the parties to the dispute. It also provides that in respect of cases decided at a Lok Adalat, the court fee paid by the parties will be refunded.

Annexure 'A'


S. No.
Name of the High Court
Year of Establishment
Territorial Jurisdiction
Principal Seat & Bench
Bombay High Court 
Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu*,
Principal Seat : Mumbai
Other Benches : Panaji, Aurangabad, and Nagpur
Calcutta High Court 
West Bengal
Andaman & Nicobar islands*
Principal Seat : Kolkata
Other Benches : Port Blair and Jaipaiguri
Madras High Court 
Tamil Nadu
Principal Seat : Chennai
Bench : Madurai
Allahabad High Court 
Uttar Pradesh
Principal Seat : Prayagraj
Bench : Lucknow
Karnataka High Court 
Principal Seat : Bengaluru
Other Benches : Dharwad and Gulbarga
Patna High Court 
Guwahati High Court 
Arunachal Pradesh
Principal Seat : Guwahati
Other Benches : Kohima, Aizawl, and Itanagar
Odisha High Court 
Rajasthan High Court 
Principal Seat : Jodhpur
Bench : Jaipur
Madhya Pradesh High Court 
Madhya Pradesh
Principal Seat : Jabalpur
Other Benches : Gwalior and Indore
Kerala High Court 
Kerala, Lakshadweep*
Gujarat High Court 
Delhi High Court 
New Delhi
Himachal Pradesh High Court 
Himachal Pradesh
Punjab & Haryana High Court 
Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh*
Sikkim High Court 
Chhattisgarh High Court 
Uttarakhand High Court 
Jharkhand High Court 
Tripura High Court 
Manipur High Court 
Meghalaya High Court 
Telangana High Court 
Andhra Pradesh High Court 
Andhra Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh
(Note: In 1928, Jammu & Kashmir high court was established. Post-bi-furcation of J&K into two union territories; there is now a common high court.) 
Jammu and Kashmir*, Ladakh*
Jammu & Srinagar
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